Alexander and Hephaistion (Photo credit: █ Slices of Light █▀ ▀ ▀)
Cultural links between India and the Greco-Roman world
Cyrus the Great (558-530 BC) built the first universal empire, stretching from Greece
to the Indus River
. This was the famous Achaemenid
Dynasty of Persia. An inscription at Naqsh-i-Rustam
, the Tomb
of his able successor Darius
I (521-486 BC), near Persepolis
, records Gadara (Gandhara) along with Hindush (Hindus, Sindh) in the long list of satrapies of the Persian Empire.
By about 380 BC the Persian hold on Indian regions slackened and many small local kingdoms arose. In 327 BC Alexander the Great overran the Persian Empire and located small political entities within these territories. The next year, Alexander fought a difficult battle against the Indian monarch Porus near the modern Jhelum River. East of Porus’ kingdom, near the Ganges River, was the powerful kingdom of Magadha, under the Nanda Dynasty.
Plutarch (AD 46 – 120) was a Greek historian, biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Livesand Moralia. He gives an interesting description of the situation:
As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at arms and horsemen and elephants.
Exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing another giant Indian army at the Ganges River, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas River), refusing to march further East. Alexander left behind Greek forces which established themselves in the City of Taxila, now in Pakistan.
After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Seleucus was nominated as the satrap of Babylon in 320 BC.Antigonus forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy, he was able to return in 312 BC. Seleucus’ later conquests include Persia and Media. He invaded what is now Punjab in northern India and Pakistan in 305 BC.
Further reading as published by Sanujit
published on 12 February 2011, 12:51
Can be downloaded here: Indo-greek connection
Image via Wikipedia
A revenue surplus budget of Rs 78,686.83 crore for 2012-13 for Bihar with thrust on agriculture and education, increasing taxes on Works contract, vehicle tax, VAT on tobacco products and brick-kilns was on Friday presented by Deputy Chief Minister S.K. Modi, who is also the finance minister.
Mr. Modi said for 2012-13 the revenue surplus is Rs 7088.59 crore and will be used for investment in physical infrastructure, generating productive capital assets like roads, buildings, power, schools, health centres and irrigation schemes.
The fiscal deficit for 2012-13 is Rs 7569.43 crore, which is 2.87 per cent of the GSDP. The fiscal deficit to GSDP has been limited to three per cent as per FRBM Act.
The net borrowing for 2012-13 has been limited at Rs 7916 crore by the Government of India and the GSDP estimate arrived at for the year is in accordance with 13th Finance Commission recommendations.
The public debt is estimated to be Rs 59,732.81 crore which is 22.64 per cent of GSDP, he said.
The department-wise allocation for the state plan for 2012-13 is Rs 3670.26 crore for education, Rs 3613.63 crore for road construction, Rs 2192.47 crore for water resources, Rs 2118.40 crore for social welfare, Rs 2001.75 crore for energy, Rs 8663.37 crore for planning and development, Rs 1661.78 crore for rural works, Rs 1574.84 crore for rural development, Rs 1200 crore for agriculture, Rs 1186.00 crore for panchayati raj and Rs 6917.50 crore for others.
Credits: The hindu; Timesofindia, Mauryatv, DD-Bihar.
Budget speech in hindi and english can be downloaded here:
Public Service Commission preparation
दिल्ली का इतिहास- सौ वर्ष की दिल्ली
दिल्ली ने देश की राजधानी बने सौ वर्ष पूरे कर लिए। दिल्ली ने इन सौ वर्षो में बहुत कुछ देखा और बहुत कुछ सहा भी। दिल्ली ने जहां भारत को बनते देखा वहीं इसके दामन पर खून के छींटे भी लगते देखा। सौ वर्ष पहले जब जार्ज पंचम का राज्यभिषेक हुआ और कलकत्ता से दिल्ली को राजधानी बनाने का फैसला हुआ तो कोई नहीं जानता था कि दिल्ली उसके बाद हमेशा के लिए राजनीतिक गलियारों की अहम जगह बन जाएगी। इस बनती बिगड़ती की कहानी भी बड़ी अनूठी है। 12 दिसंबर 1911 में दिल्ली को भारत की राजधानी बनाया गया और दिल्ली को मिली अपनी नई पहचान। 1772 से 1911 तक कलकत्ता ही भारत की राजधानी थी। आज के ही दिन जार्ज पंचम का भारत के शासक के तौर पर राज्यभिषेक हुआ और दिल्ली में एक विशाल दरबार लगाया गया। यह दरबार कोई मामूली दरबार नहीं था, बल्कि इस दरबार में अंग्रेजी हुकुमरानों ने अपने को शासक के तौर पर भारत पर काबिज कर दिया था। इस राज्यभिषेक के दौरान हाजिरी लगाने पूरे देश के नवाब और राजा पहुंचे थे। इसका अर्थ यह था कि उन्होंने अंग्रेजी हुकुमत को स्वीकार कर लिया था। वर्षो पहले व्यापार करने भारत में आई ब्रिटिश इंडिया कंपनी ने भारत पर राज करने की शुरूआत सही मायने में यहीं से की थी। राजधानी बनने के बाद दिल्ली की पहचान बदल गई। अब दिल्ली एक अलग मुकाम बना चुकी थी। सियासी गलियारों में अहम हो चुकी थी दिल्ली। मुगल सल्तनत और मिर्जा गालिब की दिल्ली अब बहुत कुछ देखने वाली थी। निजामुद्दीन औलिया पर गाए जाने वाली कव्वालियों और दिल्ली के लाल किले में होने वाले शाही मुशायरों के बीच पश्चिम संस्कृति भी बसने लगी थी। चांदनी चौक के आस पास अंग्रेजी हुकुमरानों के घोड़ों की टापों से दिल्ली का रोज आमना सामना होने लगा था। दिल्ली अब आजादी के मतवालों का गढ़ बनने लगा था। दिल्ली ने आजादी की आखिरी लड़ाई को भी बेहद करीब से देखा। दिल्ली कभी अंग्रेजी सत्ता और कभी भारतीयों को इस पर काबिज होते देखा। दिल्ली पर काबिज आखिरी मुगल बादशाह खुद बड़े आला दर्जे के शायर थे और उनके मुशायरे में अकसर मिर्जा गालिब और जौक जैसे शायर शिरकत करते थे। उस वक्त के लालकिला में इस मुशायरे के बीच वाह वाही की आवाजें खूब जोर शोर से गूजां करती थीं। उस वक्त की श्वेत श्याम दिल्ली आज पूरी तरह से तबदील हो चुकी है। वक्त के साथ दिल्ली की खूबसूरती पर भी चार चांद लग गए हैं। उस वक्त की हवेलियां आज भी दिल्ली में शानौशौकत की मिसाल पेश करती हैं। चंद दरवाजों में रची बसी उस वक्त की दिल्ली आज भारत के सियासी गलियारों में कितनी अहम है इसे बताने की कोई जरूरत यहां समझ नहीं आती। दिल्ली की खूबसूरती और यहां की आबौ हवा पर ही दिल्ली के शायर ने कहा था कौन जाए जौक अब दिल्ली की गलियां छोड़ कर। वहीं मिर्जा गालिब को भी दिल्ली इतनी रास आई कि आखिर तक उन्होंने इस दिल्ली का साथ नहीं छोड़ा। दिल्ली के बल्लीमारान में आज भी मिर्जा गालिब की हवेली मौजूद है जहां के दरो दीवार से उनके कलाम की खुशबू आज भी महसूस की जा सकती है। दिल्ली में आज भी जहां तहां पुरानी हवेलियां देखने को मिल जाती हैं। हालांकि मौजूदा दौर में यह भले ही बदल चुकी हैं लेकिन इन्हें देखकर उस वक्त की खूबसूरत दिल्ली की कल्पना जरूरी की जा सकती है। उस वक्त के वायसराए हाउस को आज का राष्ट्रपति भवन कहा जाता है। जिस वक्त सर लूटियन ने इसका निर्माण करवाया था उस वक्त उनके जहन में दिल्ली की सबसे ऊंची पहाड़ी से पूरी दिल्ली पर नजर डालना हुआ करता था। लेकिन वक्त के साथ इसमें भी बदलाव आ गया और आज यह बाकि दिल्ली के बराबर आ खड़ा हुआ है। दिल्ली का कश्मीरी गेट जहां आज बड़ी आटो पार्टस की मार्किट दिखाई देती है वह वास्तव में अंग्रेजों के लिए बनाई गई खास किस्म का बाजार हुआ करती थी जहां हिंदुस्तानियों का आने पर पाबंदी थी। तब से अब तक दिल्ली की सूरत भले ही बदल गई हो लेकिन नहीं बदली इसकी शान जो आज भी ज्यों की त्यों बनी हुई है।
Courtesy: Jagran Samachar.
As the court will announce its verdict on Monday 5 Dec 2011. According to sources at BPSC, Patna, commission officials are expecting, following:
1. The verdict will be a more of guideline to BPSC
2. It will set future exam rules and regulation.
3. Commission is going to get reprimanded for their lapses.
4. Need to release new list of candidate. Read the rest of this entry »
After Tuesday session court hearings, it look more murkier than ever that what will be next step for the result declaring. However, one thing is clear that just by including 588 students to the declared result will not resolve this conflict.
therefore, I caution you all that BPSC 2011-53rd 55th PT revised results will be announced soon, and your name may go missing if the stance of BPSC changes before Thursday, 1st December 2011.
You may have noticed that there are more than 200 court cases filed at the court and combined hearing is conducted. Even though the applicant lawyer is requesting not to remove 915 successful candidates from the declared list, BPSC is planning not to accept this arbitration as of now. This is based on the background that BPSC does not want this episode to repeat that “just by going to court will solve the problem”.
Moreover, we are waiting for Thursday hearing for BPSC stance on this issue. Read the rest of this entry »
Public Service Commission preparation
India’s electorate emphasized political stability and governance coherence in the 15th national elections in 2009. Predictions of a fragmented electorate and party system emboldened small groups to envision obtaining power in third and fourth fronts emphasizing regional, caste, ideological, and personality considerations. Instead, the Congress Party gambled successfully on a minimum rather than a maximum1winning coalition.
The Congress initially allied with a few partners in its minimal winning coalition, so as to highlight the Congress Party rather than the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) coalition label. This successful strategic gamble provided more coherence, clearer messages, and a revitalizing leadership. Lacking only 10 seats for a majority, the UPA coalition quickly attracted other parties for a comfortable 2 majority (see Table 1.1 for Lok Sabha results by party, Table 1.2 for coalition formations, and 1.3 for party symbols).Prime Minister Manmohan Singh signifies integrity, continuity, and competence in the 2009 campaign, which contrasts sharply with contestants burdened by criminal charge sheets. More than one-quarter of the elected Members of Parliament (MPs) fall into this category. And that does not include major criminal/political figures failing to win 3seats. Party and Alliance leader Sonia Gandhi, in addition, represents dynastic continuity. It now is a long chain stemming from Motilal Nehru to his son Jawaharlal Nehru, to Jawaharlal’s daughter Indira Gandhi, other son Rajiv Gandhi, and now to Rajiv’s wife Sonia Gandhi. Read the rest of this entry »
Public Service Commission preparation
After techniques on how to recall what you study, please read further for another very strong and most effective article on NOTE TAKING AND REVISING techniques at here at bpscjpsc.com .
This info graphic is propriety of “Course Hero” a channel partner of CIVIL SERVICES EXAM HELP. Read the rest of this entry »
“After full year preparation and avoiding all family gatherings gave delayed BPSC 2011, two months of waiting for prelims results, thanks to ‘Maiya Gadhdevi’ I got handsome 118 marks at prelim, started full fledged main paper preparation. now hearing another delay in mains exam, Now even most of the Coaching Institutes are confused over how to prepare mains GS paper? How come premier commissions and top most employer government employer can do this to me sir?”
A desperate voice jolted my heart at my cabin here! My chair began to sink on the third floor of very busy area in Patna Suburb. I was definitely not expecting my morning like this. Where one of my very enthusiast member of MOCK 30 in such a desperation. A poor fellow like this repenting on his choice of leaving a bank job for BPSC preparation.
you know what’s reply to this in BPSC corridors “at least we are more efficient and transparent than of J*** and other commissions!” WT*
I think neither me nor officials at BPSC can reply to his desperation in real sense, whereas guys like Sumit, who are loosing their career, time and money.
Questions is still wide open!
Develop a Power List
One to two days before the test, prepareand reinforcean appropriate Power List covering the key points of the material. What’s a Power List? It’s the natural culmination of the acronym, replacement/exaggeration and numeric sounds techniques you learned in the previous chapter. It can be expanded or contracted as you see fit, and can accommodate whatever materials you feel are important to review. Developing a Power List is not a substitute for studying your material, but a convenient way to memorize key points that you can later reconstructon paper, if that’s an optionduring the test.
If you have the three strategies from the previous chapter down, and if you’ve effectively highlighted your written text and taken good notes, you’re ready to supercharge your study and memorization efforts. Here’s how:
Develop an acronym appropriate to the material you’ve been studying. In the case of the misdeeds that occurred within the Grant administration, you’d probably want one that reminds you of Grant himself and of each of the five main scandals:
1. Black Friday
2. Credit Mobilier Affair
3. Delinquent tax collection abuse
4. Whiskey Ring
5. Belknap Bribery Read the rest of this entry »
Plan your time before you start: Follow the advice in Article 2 and develop a written battle plan!
Use your Planning Calendar, your weekly Priority Task Sheet and your Daily Schedule to allocate the time available to prepare for the test. Isolate the most important elements of the exam you must prepare for, and give them highest priority.
Whenever possible, schedule your test preparation activities for your own personal “prime time.” Keep all appropriate written planning materials in your Study Plan Central book. Monitor your progress toward key goals on a daily basis.
Here’s a suggested breakdown of the major study issues you could choose to focus on, assuming you have 12 days at your disposal. Of course, your own class, work and personal schedules will necessitate that you develop a unique schedule that works for you, rather than marching lockstep through this outline.
Days 12 to 9: Review your written materials extensively.
Days 8 to 6: Develop “condensed notes” (later in this article) and review your own notes from class. Read the rest of this entry »
Some Essential Memory Skills: Part 3
You have now seen how a single impossible-to-forget sentence can translate into an impossible-to-forget 23-digit number something you probably would never have thought yourself capable of memorizing before you picked up this book. Now you’re going to learn how to use the process in the opposite direction by taking the numbers you need to memorize, turning them into words and ideas you can remember and incorporating unusual images that will stick in your mind just as readily as this sentence did:
“Some people don’t like to eat worms but I certainly do!”
The digital alphabet can make hard-to-memorize “abstract” numbers you face instantly memorable. (In the following examples, we’ll be memorizing only the dates by associating them with the most important single idea of the passage. You can also use the Acronym and Replacement/Exaggeration methods to develop more elaborate memory connections, and to master no numerical material as well.)
William Shakespeare died in 1616.
Picture yourself strapping William Shakespeare into an electric chair (William Shakespeare died…). As you do so, he begs you to refrain from touching his body and you scream, “Touchy, touchy!” (…in 1616) before you pull the lever.
The population of Nairobi, Kenya, is estimated by one source to be 1,482,386.
For “Nairobi” picture a knight in your own bathrobe. He’s causing a huge commotion by galloping his horse through a drive-in movie show (1,482,386), and he’s irritating the patrons by getting in the way of the images on the screen.
Stop! Take a moment now to review all the numerical associations you’ve just made. When you feel confident with each of them, take a break of at least 10 minutes. Then review all three categories of the mnemonic work you’ve done. Look once again at an the acronyms, replacements and exaggerations and numerical associations you just mastered. The process should take no longer than five minutes or so. Do this right now.
This step is an essential part of the memorization/study process. When it comes time to prepare for your exams, don’t skip this step! Take a few moments and review the associations you develop for your real-life study material.
An amazing thing happens when you use these systems: The effort you expend in applying the systems helps your “natural” memory do a better job. Often, the merest hint of the mnemonic technique you used is all that’s necessary help you recall the information in full.
Now it’s time to surprise yourself. Please take the short test on the next page. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.
Cover via Amazon
Some Essential Memory Skills : Article 4 part 2
Your Pathway to a Better Memory
Obviously, being able to memorize material such as we just reviewed, and being able to do so in a hurry, is a significant advantage when it comes to preparing for tests. It doesn’t hurt when you need to master-key points from your notes before writing a paper, either.
You can improve your memory just about instantly, and this chapter’s going to show you exactly how. There are three main methods for memory improvement, and
although they may take some time to perfect, they don’t take much time at all to learn. And they can deliver results so quickly they’ll surprise you.
What follows is a condensed summary of some basic memory techniques that have been helping students, speakers, business people and stage performers for centuries. For a more in-depth review of the subject, take a look at my book, Improve Your Memory, available at your local bookstore, or Harry Lorayne‘s and Jerry Lucas‘s The Memory Book, which you can probably find at your local library. Both of these go into far greater detail than I can here but the name of the game at this point is speed, right?
Three basic methods for memory improvement
Replacement / Exaggeration
These three methods may have fancy-sounding names, but the ideas behind them are extremely simple. No special aptitude, intelligence or training is required to use them and to dramatically increase your efficiency when it comes to studying. We’ll look at each of the techniques in detail and you’ll see how powerful a few very straightforward ideas can be when it comes to memory improvement.
By the way, there is a fourth and extremely powerful method, one that combines the basics of all three of the techniques you’re about to discover. We’ll deal with that strategy, which I call Power Listing, in the next chapter.
If You have a Test Now…
You’re about to learn some powerful techniques for improving your memory, and you should know ahead of time
that there’s a certain amount of self-testing involved in mastering these ideas. This self-testing process won’t take you that long, but if you are under severe time pressure in preparing for a test if the test is, say, tomorrow you will probably want to review all the basic principles covered in this chapter, skip the testing sections, then proceed to Chapter 8 to get some helpful advice on additional ideas you can use to improve your memory instantly.
You’ll also want to review the advice on skimming first, and reading for detail later, that appears in Chapter 5.
If you have more than a few days to prepare for your test, however, then you should certainly follow all the advice in the following two chapters, and that includes working with the self-test material.
The three basic methods you’re about to learn are essentially the same as those offered by the high-priced “ultra-memory” courses you’ve probably seen on television commercials late at night. Weren’t you a little bit curious about how people could develop those high-powered memory techniques those courses promised? Well, now you don’t have to spend $150 to find out.
The three ideas are likely to have greater impact on increasing your personal efficiency when it comes to test preparation than any other part of your study regimen. Don’t skip the tests and activities that follow! Review each item closely until you feel comfortable with it, and take breaks at each point you are directed to by the text.
CREEP was the unfortunate name assigned to President Nixon‘s Committee to RE-Elect the President.
The four notes that fall on the treble scale’s “open spaces” are F, A, C and E. Music students are taught to remember the word FACE when they first encounter the treble scale.
For right now, give yourself a reward. Take a mandatory break of at least 10 minutes before you proceed. Listen to a favorite song or enjoy a high-energy snack to celebrate your accomplishment! Then, return to master the next technique for memorization.
Replacement is simply the process of substituting a boring word or phrase with a more interesting one and using the second word to remind you of the first. If you need to remember the French word for lawyer, ”avocat” (pronounced AH-vo-CAH), you might replace it with the phrase “avocado.”
Exaggeration is the process whereby you connect the two ideas with something outlandish or oversized. Picture, let’s say, a nationally known lawyer from a famous criminal trial of recent date. Does anyone come to mind? (If not, I’ll assume you’ve been on Mars for the last few years, and ask you to pick a specific lawyer you know or a lawyer from a favorite crime drama.)
The person you pick must be a specific individual not an abstract embodiment of lawyers as a group. To use exaggeration to fuse the two ideas (“avocado” and “lawyer”), imagine that lawyer making the closing argument to a jury, picking up a foot-tall avocado and smashing it on top of his head. See the green goop trailing down on his suit.
When it comes time to remember the word for “lawyer,” you’ll recall that absurd image. And you’ll remember “avocado.” And your “natural” memory will kick in with “avocat.”
Replacement finding the interesting word or phrase that sounds enough like the boring one to make your “natural” memory kick inis a pretty basic technique, and there’s not much to it. In the following examples, you’ll see more instances of replacement in action
Exaggeration, on the other hand, can take many forms and merits a little fuller discussion here. (In most cases, when people can’t get memory systems to deliver results for them, it’s because they haven’t mastered the technique of exaggeration.) Take a look at this sentence:
“Some people don’t like to eat worms but I certainly do!”
If I told you that you had to memorize that sentence, word for word and recall it for an exam, would you be able to do that? Of course you would.
What exactly makes that sentence memorable? For one thing, it summons up a vivid, unforgettable image (eating worms). For another, that image is a bit nauseating. Finally, it reverses your expectations about the situation and creates an unexpected connection. (Who on earth would brag about liking to eat worms?) All three of those factors can be put to work in your efforts to turn your study material into specific images you can manipulate and recall easily.
A vivid, exaggerated, unforgettable image is one that has direct, immediate visual appeal. A five-inch-long, dangling, wriggling worm on the end of a fork is a vivid image. However, a sign that says “WORMS FOR SALE” is notit’s vague, undramatic, not exaggerated and not visually oriented. So you’re going to construct pictures that are based in one vivid, exaggerated picture at a time.
An image with exaggerated gut-level associations is one that plays on our natural human tendency to remember that which is striking on a visceral level. Once you’ve pictured yourself moving a forkfuls of those huge, wriggling worms toward your open mouth, then closing your mouth around the fork and actually chewing the worms, you’ve conjured up a situation you’re not soon likely to forget.
On the other hand, if you picture yourself pondering a can of worms on a supermarket shelf, you probably will
Welcome back! Assuming you are rested and ready to roll, you’re about to learn about one of the most powerful study techniques ever to come down the pike. Stick with it and follow all the instructions exactly as written. I promise you, you won’t regret it!
Numerical Sounds (Sounds and Digits?)
Seems kind of silly, doesn’t it? We associate the “ssssss” sound with the letter “S”but what sound do we associate with, say, the digit zero?
Unlikely as it may seem at first, there is a 10-digit phonetic “alphabet” tied to each of the numbers in our counting system. This alphabet makes it easy to remember even long-number sequences like this one:
Within the phonetic number alphabet you’re about to learn to put to your advantage, the digit zero does have a sound it makes a “ssssss” sound, just like the letter “S.” It also makes the related “zzzzzz” sound of the letter “Z.”
There are no vowels within this number system or rather, there are whatever vowels you want to incorporate. There’s no sound associated with the letters “H,” “W” or “Y,” either, so you can stick them in wherever you want when it’s time to form a word.